Category Archives: Guide

Melbourne Attractions

One of the most famous cities in Australia, Melbourne is also one of the most competitive for travel agents. They try everything to give their customers the best deals and prices. This means more opportunities for customers to travel and to capitalize on the best deals and packages offered. You need to do some research and check details of the Melbourne Attractions to compare different service providers and their packaging for something that fits u the best.

Melbourne has a number of excellent attractions that maintains a constant flow of visitors. There are many other attractions and several buildings of cultural, political and historical. Melbourne has visitors from around the world during the Melbourne Comedy Festival International, which is an annual event.

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The Swiss Alps

1303_01_2-chapel-bridge-lucerne-switzerland-the-kapellbruecke-luzern-die-schweiz_webThe Swiss Alps (German: Schweizer Alpen, French: Alpes suisses, Italian: Alpi svizzere, Romansh: Alps svizras) are the portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland. Because of their central position with the entire Alpine range, they are also known as the Central Alps.

The highest summit in the Swiss Alps is the Dufourspitze (4,634 metres (15,202 ft)) near the Swiss-Italian border. The highest mountain which lies entirely on Swiss territory is the Dom (4,545 metres (14,911 ft)). Other main summits can be found in the list of mountains in Switzerland.

Early Middle Ages

Under the Carolingian kings, the feudal system proliferated, and monasteries and bishopries were important bases for maintaining the rule. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 assigned the western part of modern Switzerland (Upper Burgundy) to Lotharingia, ruled by Lothair I, and the eastern part (Alemannia) to the eastern kingdom of Louis the German that would become the Holy Roman Empire. The boundary between Alamania, ruled by Louis, and western Burgundy, ruled by Lothar, ran along the lower Aare, turning towards the south at the Rhine, passing west of Lucerne and across the Alps along the upper Rhône to Saint Gotthard Pass.

Louis the German in 853 granted his lands in the Reuss River valley to the monastery of St Felix and Regula in Zürich (modern day Fraumünster) of which his daughter Hildegard was the first abbess. According to legend this occurred after a stag bearing an illuminated crucifix between his antlers appeared to him in the marshland outside the town, at the shore of Lake Zürich. However, there is evidence that the monastery was already in existence before 853. The Fraumünster is across the river from the Grossmünster, which according to legend was founded by Charlemagne himself, as his horse fell to his knees on the spot where the martyrs Felix and Regula were buried.

Switzerland and the European Union

In recent years, the Swiss have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with those of the European Union in many ways, in an effort to enhance their international competitiveness. The economy has been growing most recently at around 3% per year. Full EU membership is a long-term objective of some in the Swiss government, but there is considerable popular sentiment against this supported by the conservative SVP party. The western French-speaking areas and the urban regions of the rest of the country tend to be more pro-EU.

International institutions in Switzerland

An unusual number of international institutions have their seats in Switzerland, in part because of its policy of neutrality. The Red Cross was founded there in 1863 and still has its institutional centre in the country. Switzerland is not a member of the European Union; the Swiss people rejected membership in a referendum in the early 1990s. Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, in 2002, even though Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member of the League of Nations. The International Olympic Committee is located in Lausanne.

Ship

Although Switzerland is a landlocked country, it can theoretically reach with the ship, for example with a river cruise on the Rhine or on the part of the Italian Langensees (Lago Maggiore), as well as with the Lake ferry Friedrichshafen-Romanshorn (with car). The many beautiful lakes worthwhile excursion by boat: for example two of the largest lakes in Europe, the soil and the Leman Lake, the largest Raddamperflotte Europe on the winding lake or a Three Lakes tour in the Western Region.

Especially attractive: The train tickets are often also for ships, the same link villages. In Zurich, for example, the Tram-/Busbillett vessel Limmat also, with one very little money for a wonderful tour of Limmat River and the lake can enjoy. The same applies to the Zurich-Rapperswil and on other lakes.

Napoleonic era

In 1798 the armies of the French Revolution conquered Switzerland and imposed a new unified constitution. This centralised the government of the country and effectively abolished the cantons. The new regime, known as the Helvetic Republic, was highly unpopular. It had been imposed by a foreign invading army and destroyed centuries of tradition, making Switzerland nothing more than a French satellite state. The fierce French suppression of the Nidwalden Revolt in September of 1798 is an example of the suppressing presence of the French army and the local population’s resistance to the occupation.

When war broke out between France and its rivals, Russian and Austrian forces invaded Switzerland. In 1803 Napoleon organised a meeting of the leading Swiss politicians from both sides in Paris. The result was the Act of Mediation which largely restored Swiss autonomy and introduced a Confederation of 19 cantons. Henceforth much of Swiss politics would concern balancing the cantons’ tradition of self-rule with the need for a central government.

In 1815 the Congress of Vienna fully re-established Swiss independence and the European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality. The treaty marked the last time that Switzerland fought in an international conflict. The treaty also allowed Switzerland to increase its territory, with the admission of the cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva – this was also the last time Switzerland’s territory expanded.

Augusta Raurica

These Roman ruins by the Rhein are Switzerland’s largest, and the last remnants of a colony founded in 43 BC that had grown to 20,000 citizens by the 2nd century. Today, restored features include an open-air theatre and several temples, plus the Roman Museum, which features an authentic Roman house among its exhibits.

When to Go

You can visit Switzerland any time throughout the year. Summer lasts roughly from June to September and offers the most pleasant climate for outdoor pursuits. Unfortunately, you won’t be the only tourist during this period, so prices can be high, accommodation hard to find and the mainstream sights crowded. You’ll find much better deals and fewer crowds in the shoulder seasons of April-May and late-September-October.

At any time, as you travel around the country you’ll hit many different climatic conditions. The continental climate in the Alps tends to show the greatest extremes between summer and winter. Mid-August to late October generally has fairly settled weather, and is a good period for hiking trips.

If you’re keen on winter sports, resorts in the Alps begin operating in early December, move into full swing around Christmas, and close down when the snow begins to melt in April.

Berne

The city of Berne or Bern (German: [b̥ɛrn], French: Berne [bɛʀn], Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna], Romansh: Berna [ˈbɛrnə], Bernese German: Bärn [b̥æːrn]), is the Bundesstadt (federal city, de facto capital) of Switzerland and, with 128,041 people (agglomeration: 344,000), is the fourth most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel).

Most of Berne’s residents speak German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The Canton of Berne has a French-speaking part. Very few people still speak the Mattenenglisch, a language game used in the former workers’ quarter of Matte, but several words have found their way into Bernese German.

Berne also functions as the capital of the Canton of Berne, the second most populous of Switzerland’s cantons.

Illustrious Bernese include the reformer Albrecht von Haller, the poet Albert Bitzius and the painters Hans Fries, Ferdinand Hodler and Paul Klee. The German-born physicist Albert Einstein worked out his theory of relativity while employed as a clerk at the Berne patent office. A culturally important person was Mani Matter, a songwriter performing in Bernese German.